Dressed as a king, Queen Hatshepsut was second female pharaoh of ancient Egypt. One of the significant buildings commissioned by her was Djeser-Djeseru at Deir el-Bahri.
Queen Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the ancient Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Historically, she was the second female pharaoh of ancient Egypt. Egyptologist James Henry Breasted also called Queen Hatshepsut as "the first great woman in history of whom we are informed.” Hatshepsut was born to Pharaoh Thutmose I and Ahmose. Married to her half-brother Thutmose II, they had a daughter named Neferure.
Due to early death of fourth Pharaoh Thutmose II, Hatshepsut was officially declared as the regent as his son Thutmose III was just about 2 year old. From her reign of over 20 years during 1478-58 BCE, she lead many prominent building projects and trading expeditions. Later on, she took up a full throne name and her statues and paintings were created depicting her as a male king, as was the bizarre tradition of ancient Egypt.
Land of Punt, a trading network that was disrupted earlier, was re-established by Hatshepsut that brought prosperity in the 18th century. Around 9th year of her reign, Hatshepsut set out on this trading expedition. Supposedly, there were 5 ships in her name that harbored 210 men including several sailors and 30 rowers. Frankincense and myrrh were the notable trade goods among many others bought in Punt.
The Egyptian envoys of Hatshepsut came back with 31 myrrh trees whose roots were carefully kept in baskets during the sea voyage. And by records, it is the first endeavor of transplanting foreign trees. As is known, these trees were planted in the courts of her mortuary temple. Also, Hatshepsut grinded the charred frankincense into kohl eyeliner. And this is the first recorded use of the resin.
As pharaoh, she commissioned several building projects and one of the most recognized one was Djeser-Djeseru, an enormous temple at Deir-el-Bahri. Employing greatest of architects, construction of Temple of Karnak and restoration of Precinct of Mut took place during her reign. Another most prominent accomplishment during her reign was an expedition authorized by her that included gold, ivory, and ebony. (1.1)
Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut or Djeser-Djeseru ("Holy of Holies") is regarded as a paradigm of Classical architecture in Egypt. It marked a turning point in the architecture of ancient Egypt.
She is regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. As a pharaoh, she assumed all of the regalia including Khat headcloth, traditional false beard and shendyt kilt.
She was depicted in several official artworks such as those at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In those depictions, she donned a tight-fitting dress and the nemes crown that was apparently the accurate representation of how she appeared at the court.
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